India's "JAM Trinity" – Enabling Direct Transfer of Government Subsidies to the Masses

India`s `JAM Trinity` – Enabling Direct Transfer of Government Subsidies to the Masses
Case Code: CLECO005
Case Length: 7 Pages
Period: 2014-2020
Pub Date: 2020
Teaching Note: Available
Price: Rs.300
Organization: -
Industry: Government & Non-Profit Organisations
Countries: India
Themes: Public Policy, Business Environment, Government Policies, Banks and Banking
India`s `JAM Trinity` – Enabling Direct Transfer of Government Subsidies to the Masses


The case 'India's "JAM Trinity" – Enabling Direct Transfer of Government Subsidies to the Masses' is about the initiatives taken by the Government of India (GoI) to enable the seamless transfer of subsidies and the financial inclusion of the masses. The 'JAM Trinity' started by GoI comprised linking of Jan Dhan accounts, Aadhaar cards, and Mobile numbers. The case deals with the need for the 'JAM Trinity' to provide Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) of funds to the underprivileged sections of society. The various challenges faced by the GoI are discussed in detail. To tackle the challenges, the GoI came up with a series of measures such as granting licenses for mobile money operations to provide financial benefits to the masses in remote locations.

The working of the 'JAM Trinity' is put forth through the relationships between the government, the bank, and the beneficiary. Even though the 'JAM Trinity' provided financial inclusion for the unbanked people, the DBT for fertilizer subsidies and food distribution under the PDS scheme faced a lot of issues. The opening of bank accounts was fraught with problems. Though some of these were addressed, there were many more measures that needed to be taken to address the issues. The massive amount of data required to manage DBT of funds posed new challenges for GoI. It remained to be seen whether the 'JAM Trinity' continued to be the preferred mode for DBT of funds for the masses.


  • Understand the dimensions of public policy and its formulation and implementation.
  • Understand the importance of financial inclusion for economic development and upliftment of the masses.
  • Evaluate the issues and challenges in implementation of DBT in India.


In September 2019, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation’s annual Goalkeepers Examining Inequality 2019 report projected India’s “JAM trinity” – linking Jan Dhan accounts, Aadhaar cards, and mobile numbers – as the pioneers in creating smart policies that were built around digital technologies to provide quality government services and improve the reach of these services among the masses. The “JAM trinity” comprised the Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) that enabled the poor to open bank accounts; Aadhaar, that provided a unique identity number to every citizen of India that was authenticated biometrically; and mobile phones that assisted in monitoring the quality of the government services and improving the accessibility of such services to the poor even in remote areas..


Public Policy; Financial Inclusion; Direct Benefit Transfer; Aadhaar; Jan Dhan Accounts; JAM Trinity; Public Distribution System; Digital and Mobile Technologies; Financial Services

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